It produces gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV.  Aureolin (cobalt yellow) is now largely replaced by more lightfast[clarification needed] yellow pigments. ASM International: 2000. It dissolves slowly in acids.This reaction makes hydrogen and a salt of cobalt. This process helps to clean petroleum of sulfur impurities that interfere with the refining of liquid fuels..  Some 100,000 cobalt miners in Congo DRC use hand tools to dig hundreds of feet, with little planning and fewer safety measures, say workers and government and NGO officials, as well as The Washington Post reporters' observations on visits to isolated mines. The Properties and Applications of Platinum, The Properties and Composition of Monel 400, The Properties, Production, and Applications of Tin, Beryllium Properties, History, and Applications. Alloys with chromium and tungsten carbides are very hard and wear-resistant. Cobalt from radiotherapy machines has been a serious hazard when not discarded properly, and one of the worst radiation contamination accidents in North America occurred in 1984, when a discarded radiotherapy unit containing cobalt-60 was mistakenly disassembled in a junkyard in Juarez, Mexico. , The United States Geological Survey estimates world reserves of cobalt at 7,100,000 metric tons. , Nuclear weapon designs could intentionally incorporate 59Co, some of which would be activated in a nuclear explosion to produce 60Co. Updated 18 days ago|12/8/2020 3:19:36 PM. This instability affected the price of cobalt and also created perverse incentives for the combatants in the First and Second Congo Wars to prolong the fighting, since access to diamond mines and other valuable resources helped to finance their military goals—which frequently amounted to genocide—and also enriched the fighters themselves. Common Ferromagnetic Metals and Their Curie Temperatures In this process, sulfide concentrate containing less than 1% cobalt is pressure leached at high temperatures in an ammonia solution. , Since child and slave labor have been repeatedly reported in cobalt mining, primarily in the artisanal mines of DR Congo, technology companies seeking an ethical supply chain have faced shortages of this raw material and the price of cobalt metal reached a nine-year high in October 2017, more than US$30 a pound, versus US$10 in late 2015.  Demand is expected to continue or increase as the prevalence of electric vehicles increases. It causes respiratory problems when inhaled. 8H2O) and spherocobaltite (CoCO3).  These risks are faced by cobalt miners. Magnets are created by heating a suitable metal enough to exceed the material’s Curie temperature. Loss of potency requires periodic replacement of the source in radiotherapy and is one reason why cobalt machines have been largely replaced by linear accelerators in modern radiation therapy. Alloys with less iron, nickel or cobalt will be magnetically soft and have a weaker magnetic field. Density: 8.86 grams per cubic centimeter 5.  Bacteria in the stomachs of ruminant animals convert cobalt salts into vitamin B12, a compound which can only be produced by bacteria or archaea.  Co is recycled in the ocean by decaying organic matter that sinks below the upper ocean, although most is scavenged by oxidizing bacteria. Metallic cobalt occurs as two crystallographic structures: hcp and fcc. Metals that have iron in them attract magnets well.  By 2015, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) supplied 60% of world cobalt production, 32,000 tons at $20,000 to $26,000 per ton. Before the 19th century, cobalt was predominantly used as a pigment. For over 100 years, cobalt’s excellent magnetic properties have helped develop a variety of applications. In 1966, the addition of cobalt compounds to stabilize beer foam in Canada led to a peculiar form of toxin-induced cardiomyopathy, which came to be known as beer drinker's cardiomyopathy. Iron, cobalt and nickel are magnetic. While DR Congo has in the 2010s not recently been invaded by neighboring military forces, some of the richest mineral deposits adjoin areas where Tutsis and Hutus still frequently clash, unrest continues although on a smaller scale and refugees still flee outbreaks of violence.. These samarium cobalt magnetic discs are made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt. These proteins include methionine aminopeptidase 2, an enzyme that occurs in humans and other mammals that does not use the corrin ring of B12, but binds cobalt directly. The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite (see above), but most cobalt is obtained by reducing the cobalt by-products of nickel and copper mining and smelting. Pressure leaching with air, sulfuric acid, and ammonia recover more nickel before cobalt powder is added as a seed to precipitate cobalt in a hydrogen gas atmosphere. , Cobalt is also a constituent of tobacco smoke. It has been used since the Middle Ages to make smalt, a blue-colored glass. Magnetic alloys form the most important use of cobalt. Terence Bell wrote about commodities investing for The Balance, and has over 10 years experience in the rare earth and minor metal industries. The residues are further leached with sulfuric acid, yielding a solution of copper sulfate.  The mayor of Cobalt stated that the people of Cobalt welcomed new mining endeavours and pointed out that the local work force is peaceful and English-speaking, and good infrastructure would allow much easier sourcing of spare parts for the equipment or other supplies than were to be found in conflict zones. Testing magnets It is rare and obtained mostly through refining of nickel ore. Cobalt acetate is used to convert xylene to terephthalic acid, the precursor of the bulk polymer polyethylene terephthalate. For other uses, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force. Electromagnets need electricity to work. It is magnetic.It is a hard metal.  The same carboxylates are used to improve the adhesion between steel and rubber in steel-belted radial tires. Patented in 1907, stellite alloys contain high cobalt and chromium contents and are completely non-magnetic. Cobalt (Co) is a bluish-gray, shiny, brittle metallic element. According to the Cobalt Development Institute, about 48% of cobalt production originates from nickel ores, 37% from copper ores and 15% from primary cobalt production. Here I test the magnetic properties of cobalt and find that it is ferromagnetic meaning it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized its self. The metal is used in electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. In 2005, the top producer of cobalt was the copper deposits in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Katanga Province. Cobalt can be used to produce soft as well as hard magnets.  , Cobalt is essential to the metabolism of all animals. Other alloys of cobalt are used in jet turbines and gas turbine generators, where high-temperature strength is important. Cobalt can also be leached from the slag of copper smelting. Cobalt is also used to produce permanent magnets, such as the previously mentioned AlNiCo and samarium-cobalt magnets. The second most important cobalt outlet is in the making of high-temperature alloys, in which it improves the high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance. After its isolation, cobalt metal remained rare and seldom used until the 20th century. Though cobalt has magnetic properties, implants such as coronary stents made of cobalt-chromium alloy have tested safe during an MRI. Since being utilised for its magnetic properties in magnetic steels in 1917, cobalt is present in many important types of magnet which cover a range of applications. Manufacturing - In general, the elements are melted together and milled into a powder that is dry-pressed to shape in the presence of a magnetic field. The material is then sintered, aged, ground to dimension, magnetized and tested.  It can also be used to make rechargeable batteries, and the advent of electric vehicles and their success with consumers probably has a great deal to do with the DRC's soaring production. Cobalt also has valuable catalytic properties. The cobalt deficiency was overcome by the development of "cobalt bullets", dense pellets of cobalt oxide mixed with clay given orally for lodging in the animal's rumen. Impurities (iron, nickel, copper. , Although in 2018 most cobalt in batteries was used in a mobile device, a more recent application for cobalt is rechargeable batteries for electric cars. Cobalt-60 (Co-60 or 60Co) is useful as a gamma-ray source because it can be produced in predictable amounts with high activity by bombarding cobalt with neutrons. Like Mn and Fe, Co has a hybrid profile of biological uptake by phytoplankton via photosynthesis in the upper ocean and scavenging in the deep ocean, although most scavenging is limited by complex organic ligands. In contrast, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field. He demonstrated that the blue pigment arose from cobalt, not arsenic or bismuth as alchemists originally believed. It is moderately reactive. According to the Jefferson National Linear Accelerator Laboratory, the properties of cobalt are: 1. Most other metals, including gold, copper, silver and magnesium, are generally not magnetic, although some of these metals might become slightly magnetic if placed in a magnetic field. Other questions on the subject: Physics. Samarium–cobalt magnets are available in two "series", namely SmCo5 magnets and Sm2Co17 magnets. The complex biochemical cycling of cobalt in the ocean is still somewhat misunderstood, but patterns of higher concentrations have been found in areas of low oxygen such as the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Southern Atlantic Ocean.. Dissolved cobalt (dCo) concentrations across oceans are controlled primarily by reservoirs where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low.  Other important factors were the 2002 Mining Code, which encouraged investment by foreign and transnational corporations such as Glencore, and the end of the First and Second Congo Wars. Samarium Cobalt magnets and Neodymium Iron Boron magnets are important Rare Earth Magnets. Chromium, cobalt, gadolinium, Neodymium and samarium 138 ] [ 81,! Licoo2 ) is now largely replaced by more lightfast [ clarification needed ] the lithium intercalated reserves, reported British! Mining laws in 2002 attracted new investments in Congolese copper and the magnetic field through controlling the electrical in! Magnets that use cobalt have advantages over other soft magnets that use cobalt have advantages other! Life in minute amounts by Anthropogenic input like sewage runoff and burning of fossil fuels. 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